Oxygen is an essential element for human survival used in clinical conditions in which there is a lack of oxygen, such as but not limited to anoxia, hypoxia, or dyspnea.
Oxygen is the most widely occurring element on Earth
Because it forms compounds with virtually all chemical elements except noble gases, most terrestrial oxygen is bound with other elements in compounds such as silicates, oxides, and water. Oxygen cylinder bd is also dissolved in rivers, lakes, and oceans.
Molecular oxygen occurs almost entirely in the atmosphere.
Oxygen is highly oxidizing a general chemical term applying to any substance, like oxygen. That accepts electrons from another substance during a reaction. Oxygen reacts vigorously with combustible materials, especially in its pure state, releasing heat in the reaction process. Many reactions require the presence of water or are accelerated by a catalyst.
Oxygen treatment has been a cornerstone of acute medical care for numerous pathological states. Initially, this was supported by the assumed need to avoid hypoxemia and tissue hypoxia. Most acute treatment algorithms, therefore, recommended the liberal use of a high fraction of inspired oxygen. Often without first confirming the presence of a hypoxic insult.
However, recent physiological research has underlined the vasoconstrictor effects of hyperoxia on normal vasculature and, consequently, the risk of significant blood flow reduction to the at-risk tissue. Positive effects may be claimed simply by relief of assumed local tissue hypoxia. Such as in acute cardiovascular disease, brain ischemia due to, for example, stroke or shock, or carbon monoxide intoxication. However, in most situations, generalized hypoxia is not the problem. And the risk of negative hypoxemia-induced local vasoconstriction effects may instead be the reality.
In preclinical studies, many important positive anti-inflammatory effects of both norm baric and hyperbaric oxygen have been repeatedly shown, often as surrogate end-points. Such as increases in glutathione levels, reduced lipid peroxidation, and neutrophil activation. Thus modifying ischemia-reperfusion injury and also causing anti-apoptotic effects. However, in parallel, the toxic effects of oxygen are also well known, including induced mucosal inflammation, pneumonitis, and retrolental fibroplasia.
Examining the available ‘strong’ clinical evidence, such as usually claimed for randomized controlled trials. Few positive studies stand up to scrutiny. And a number of trials have shown no effect or even been terminated early due to worse outcomes in the oxygen treatment arm. Recently, this has led to less aggressive approaches, even not providing any supplemental oxygen, in several acute care settings. Such as resuscitation of asphyxiated newborns, during acute myocardial infarction or after stroke or cardiac arrest.
The safety of more advanced attempts to deliver increased oxygen levels to hypoxic or ischemic tissues, such as with hyperbaric oxygen therapy, is therefore also being questioned. Here, we provide an overview of the present knowledge of the physiological effects of oxygen in relation to its therapeutic potential for different medical conditions, as well as considering the potential for harm. We conclude that the medical use of oxygen needs to be further examined. In search of solid evidence of benefit in many of the current clinical settings in which it is routinely used.
Oxygen has numerous uses in steelmaking and other metals refining and fabrication processes, in chemicals, pharmaceuticals, petroleum processing, glass, and ceramic manufacture, and pulp and paper manufacture. It is used for environmental protection in municipal and industrial effluent treatment plants and facilities. Oxygen has numerous uses in healthcare, both in hospitals, outpatient treatment centers, and at home use.